::Departments : Pre Clinical : BioChemistry
Medical 

Short History of the Department:
 
              The Biochemistry Department, which used to be a part of the Physiology Department in all medical colleges in the past, became an independent Department in Madras Medical College only in the year 1925.
               Dr. A.S.Mannady Nair, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., was the first Professor of the Department of Biochemistry, and headed the Department for a long period of 24 years till 1949. It is of interest to note that he was the first and only Professor from the basic sciences (often called Non-clinical department) to become the Surgeon General (Head of Medical Services) of the Madras Presidency in the year 1949. The Post of Surgeon General later became the Director of Medical Services.
Incidentally, Madras Presidency included present-day Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region of North Kerala, Lakshadweep Islands, the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, Brahmapur and Ganjam districts of Orissa and the Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts of Karnataka with the capital at Madra (now known as Chennai)


Growth & Expansion:
  • Dr. A.S. Ramachandran M.B.B.S., M.Sc., became the Professor in 1949 and continued till 1954.
  • Dr. Nainan Verghese, M.B.B.S., M.Sc., Ph.D., held the post of Professor from 1954 to 1970.
  • Dr.Ambika Shanmugam, M.B.B.S. M.Sc., headed the department from 1970 to 1977. She authored one of the earliest books on Biochemistry for Medical Students titled ‘Fundamentals of Biochemistry for Medical Students’ which is still popular and prescribed by various universities and followed by medical, dental nursing and science students all over India. It is in its 10th edition now.
  • Dr. S.Gopalakrishnan M.B.B,S F.R.CS (Edin) became the Professor in 1977. It was due his untiring efforts that the Biochemistry Department was upgraded to the status of an Institute in the year 1984, of which he became the First Director and Professor which he held till 1987.
  • During his time, automation in clinical biochemistry laboratory was introduced for the first time in Madras Medical College & Govt .General Hospital with the installation of the Batch Analyser, Technicon, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for trace element estimation, UV spectrophotometer, HPLC, flourimeter, micro cellulose acetate electrophoresis with densitometer, ABL blood gas analyzer full fledged research were taking place with the availability of the sophisticated equipments.
  • Dr. (Mrs.) Sarojini Rajaram M.D, succeeded him in the year 1987 and she has the credit of the first Director with Post Graduate Degree in biochemistry (M.D. in biochemistry) and continued till 1989.
  • Dr. (Mrs) Padma Ramamurthy, M.B.B.S., M. Sc., took over as Director in 1990 till Dr. L.Suryakurnari M.D., took over in 1994 and headed the headed  the Institute till 1998. It was during her period all manual enzyme assays were shifted to semi automation with the installation of ERBA CHEM semi auto analyser .
  • Dr. Anandi Alagappan, M.D.. succeeded her in 1999 and held the  post of Director between March 1999 & August 2000   .
  • Dr. W.Ebenezer William, M.D., occupied the post of Director from February 2001 to January 2003,It was he who designed the present central clinical biochemistry lab in the ground floor of tower block  and was instrumental in installing the first ISE NOVA electrolyte analyzer followed by another electrolyte analyser in the next year. It was also during his tenure that centralizing the sample collection services of Govt. General Hospital was planned.
  • It was during the tenure of Dr.T.S. Andal from 2003 to 2006 that the biochemistry lab was shifted to its present location in the ground floor of tower block I from the college side and the first Random Access Biochemistry Analyser XL 300 with a throughput of 300 tests per hour was installed.
  • Dr.A.Mamamalli M.D., took over as Director in June 2006 and continued till September 2007. During her tenure, the erstwhile famous FTM room (Fractional Test Meal Room where the test to assess gastric acid output used to be measured in the biochemistry department in those days!!)  was converted into a modern air- conditioned seminar hall with 108 seats .She was also instrumental in fully equipping the clinical biochemistry laboratory with the 2nd Automated Random Access Biochemistry Analyser (XL 300), Automated ELISA System (Triturus), Automated Coagulation Analyser (CA1500, CA 50), Automated Electrophoresis system (Sebia).
  • Dr.A.Renuka, M.D., M.N.A.M.S., Ph.D., became the Director in January 2008 which she held till October 2008. It is of interest to note that she is, till now, the only Director with both an M.D. and Ph.D degrees in Biochemistry. It was during her time, seeds for sown for the molecular diagnostics laboratory with planning and design of the molecular biology lab and purchase of Thermal Cycler, Refrigerated micro centrifuge, UV gel documentation system laminar air flow chamber for molecular biology related work was made.
 
Time line & Milestones of the Institute:
  • 1925 – Biochemistry became an independent department
  • 1966 – Starting of M.D. Biochemistry Course
  • 1984      -Upgradation of Biochemistry Department as an Institute with Director as its head Dr.S.Goplakrishnan becomes the first Director.
  • 1997 –installation of first ISE Electrolyte analyzer and semi automated analyzer for enzyme assays (ERBACHEM 5)
  • 2003 –Installation of first random Access Fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer (XL 300)
  • 2003 - Shifting of biochemistry lab to the new tower block
  • 2007 -Installation of first automated ELISA system (Triturus)
  • 2007 - Installation of first automated coagulation analyzer
  • 2007 - Installation of automated electrophoresis system with scanner (Sebia Hydrasys) Installation of second random Access Fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer (XL 300)
  • 2015 - Installation of Integreted Random Access Fully Automated Clinical Chemistry and Immuno Analyser (Cobas6000) and AU480.
 Faculty details:
 
Designation Number
Director & Professor 1
Professor 1
Associate Professor 1
Assistant Professor 7
Tutor 2
 
Academic activities

Type of course:  Medical PG Course
 
Name of the courses offered: M.D. (Biochemistry)
 
o Eligibility: M.B.B.S. Degree from any Indian university  recognized by the Medical Council of India & and obtained permanent registration from any of the State Medical Councils.  
o Course duration: 3 years
o Sanctioned number of seats: 4 students per year (50% of seats are allotted to students from Tamilnadu state who have completed their M.B.B.S examination from Tamilnadu and 50 % of seats are allotted to students based on rank obtained in All India Post Graduate Entrance Examination by the Director General of Health Services, New Delhi
 
Affiliated University: The Tamil Nadu DR. M.G.R Medical University, Chennai.
o Selection Procedure: Post Graduate Entrance Examination All India & State.
o University Examination details:
 
Theory:
          The Post Graduate students write 4 theory papers each of 100 Marks and of 3 hours duration (Total 400 marks) at the end of the 3rd  year
Paper I - Physical and Organic aspects of Biochemistry, Biochemical Techniques and Instrumentation ,Biostatistics.
Paper II – Cell Physiology, Molecular Biology, Human Genetics, & Immunology Intermediate Metabolism and Nutrition
Paper  III – Intermediary Metabolism, Macro and Micronutrients, Inborn Errors of Metabolism.
Paper IV – Clinical Biochemistry, Human Nutrition, Endocrinology, Immunology, Recent Advances in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.


Practical:

PART I (A)                                                                                                                    80 MARKS
1. THIN LAYER PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY AIMED
AT IDENTIFYING THE UNKNOWN CARBOHYDRATE/ AMINO ACID            30 MARKS
2. SERUM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS                                                             30 MARKS
3. OSPE ( 4 STATIONS X 5 MARKS EACH)                                                             20 MARKS
2 PERFORMANCE STATIONS + 2 RESPONSE STATIONS                         
 
PART II (B)                                                                                                                   120 MARKS
1. CLINICAL CASES –CHARTS DISCUSSION ( 4 CHARTS X 5 MARKSEACH)
   RELATED TO CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                                          20 MARKS
2. LONG CASE PRESENTATION & DISCUSSION                                                   40 MARKS
3. ESTIMATION OF ANY 2 ANALYTES RELATING TO CASE DISCUSSED
ONE KINETIC AND ONE END POINT ASSAY (2 X 20)                                          40 MARKS
VALIDATION OF REAGENT KITS 2 X 10 MARKS                                                  20 MARKS
 
VIVA VOCE (C)
PEDAGOGY                                                                                                                   40 MARKS
VIVA                                                                                                                               60 MARKS
 
AGGREGATE (CLINICAL + VIVA) (A+B+C) TOTAL                                              300 MARKS
 
MINIMUM REQUIRED FOR PASS (50%)                                                                  150 MARKS
 
DISSERTATION                     APPROVED / NOT APPROVED
 
Part – I
  • General Biochemistry. Qualitative identification of an unknown amino acids or sugar and confirmation by chromatography
  • Preparation of a standard graph for a given analyte
  • Interpretation of clinical data (4 cases) from cases on endocrine diseases, electrolyte and acid base disorders, mineral metabolism, analysis of body fluids, lipid profile, etc.,
Part – II
  • Clinical examination of a patient, making of a provisional diagnosis and giving differential diagnosis, giving a list of relevant investigations
  • Two to Three clinical biochemistry exercises, including separation of proteins by electrophoresis
Other Courses:
PG Courses:
D.C.P


UG Courses: 
M.B.B.S
B.D.S.
B. Sc. Nursing
B.Sc Cardiopulmonary Perfusion Technology
 
Diploma & Certificate courses:
D.M.L.T
DMRSC
BSC Optometry
  
Periodic academic activities held in the department:
  • The Postgraduate students attend Lectures & practical classes taken by the faculty of the Institute during the first year of their along with I M.B.B.S. students.
  • During the second year of their study, they are actively involved in performing routine biochemical investigations and special tests in analytical lab.
  • During the third year of the study, they complete their dissertation study.
Seminars, Short topic presentation & Journal Clubs
  • The department conducts Weekly Journal Clubs analyzing a particular Journal Topic related to clinical biochemistry presented by a post graduate student and moderated by a faculty of the department.
  • The department involves postgraduate students in Weekly Seminars, Short topic discussions and encourage them to participate in national conferences to present short title papers in national conferences.
Maintenance of Log Book:
  • Every Post-graduate student maintains a log book as a record of skills acquired during the training period, including training undergone outside the institution. Which is periodically scrutinized by the Director  & Head of the Institute and certified at the time of University examinations. The Log Book is submitted at the time of University practical examination for the scrutiny by the Board of Examiners.
  • PG students regularly participate in the teaching and training programme of post-graduate and intern-students.
Dissertation:
  • All post graduate students, as part of the curriculum, are assigned a topic of clinical interest for dissertation by the Director in order  to learn, design, conduct research studies, interpret data and perform statistical analysis of data . A Professor supervises and guides the PG student to see that the dissertations are done properly by utilizing the clinical materials of the Govt. General Hospital, Chennai.
  • No marks are given for the dissertation in the university examination and the Board of Examiners mark whether the dissertation either “Approved” or “Not Approved”.
Prizes and Award constituted by the Department:
 
Col.Van Geyzal Prize examination:
 
The department conducts a prize examination for 1st M.B.B.S. students in the subject of biochemistry (theory paper only) at the end of the academic every year and awards prizes.
The student who scores the highest mark in the prize examination is given the coveted Col. Van Geyzal Prize.
The students who score the second & third highest marks in the prize examination are given I Certificate of Honour & II Certificate of Honour respectively during Annual College Day Celebrations.

List of Winners of Prize Examination

 
Year Name of Prize /Medal Awardee
1987-1988 Van Geyzal Prize S. Sampath
  I Certificate of Honour N.Uma
  I Certificate of Honour V.Sridhar
1988 – 89 Van Geyzel Prize N.lakshmi
  I Certificate of Honour Theodare Anbu
  I Certificate of Honour Not awarded
1989-1990 Van Geyzel Prize Sabapathy Prakash
  I Certificate of Honour Veena Ramanai
  I Certificate of Honour Shoba Shalini
1990-1991 Van Geyzel Prize V.V.Meera
  I Certificate of Honour V.Vasumathy
  I Certificate of Honour Subha Sundaram
1991-1992 Van Geyzel Prize None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
1992-1993 Van Geyzel Prize S.Ramkumar
  I Certificate of Honour Deepa Doraisamy
  I Certificate of Honour K.L.Karthik
1993-1994 Van Geyzel Prize None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
1994-1995 Van Geyzel Prize None Appeared for exam
  I Certificate of Honour
  I Certificate of Honour
1995-1996 Van Geyzel Prize G.Rajarajan
  I Certificate of Honour Srimathy
  I Certificate of Honour Deepa
1996-1997 Van Geyzel Prize None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour V.Prasanna Kumar
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
1997-1998 Van Geyzel Prize Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour Lakshmi Srinivasan
  I Certificate of Honour Not awarded
1998-1999 Van Geyzel Prize Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour J.Murali
  I Certificate of Honour K.Srikanth
1999-2000 Van Geyzel Prize Murali Krishnan
  I Certificate of Honour Manish Kiran
  I Certificate of Honour Mohamed Yunus
2000-2001 Van Geyzel Prize V.Jayaprakash
  I Certificate of Honour R.M.Subramaniam
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
2001-2002 Van Geyzel Prize None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour None Eligible & Not awarded
2002-2003 Van Geyzel Prize S.Suresh
  I Certificate of Honour k.Srinivasan
  I Certificate of Honour K.Arvind
2003-2004 Van Geyzel Prize B.P.Krishna Prasad
  I Certificate of Honour R.Balaji
  I Certificate of Honour C.Pradeep
2004-2005 Van Geyzel Prize Deepika
  I Certificate of Honour Liza Das
  I Certificate of Honour Ipshita Kak
2005-2006 Van Geyzel Prize Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour S.Yamini
  I Certificate of Honour Poornima Sankar
2006-2007 Van Geyzel Prize Harshvardhan
  I Certificate of Honour Vivek Sandeep
  I Certificate of Honour Sandhya Suresh
2007-2008 Van Geyzel Prize Rakesh Durai
  I Certificate of Honour Kathikeyan
  I Certificate of Honour Hariharan
2008-2009 Van Geyzel Prize Rupesh Kumar
  I Certificate of Honour H.Naren
  I Certificate of Honour PL.Vidya
2009-10 Von Geyzel Prize  
  I Certificate of Honour  
  I Certificate of Honour  
2010-2011 Von Geyzel Prize None Eligible & Not awarded
  I Certificate of Honour R.Sathyasagar
  I Certificate of Honour  
2011-2012 Von Geyzel Prize R.Sangeetha
  I Certificate of Honour S.Joel Kevin Raj
  I Certificate of Honour  
2012-2013 Von Geyzal Prize Aaashish Rajesh
  I Certificate of Honour  
2013-2014 Von Geyzel Prize Maamannan.V.J
  I Certificate of Honour Krupasankari.S
2014-2015 Von Geyzel Prize Aakansha Ajith
  I Certificate of Honour Divya. V
2015-2016 Von Geyzel Prize Akash venkatram
  I Certificate of Honour Gokul dev
 






























































































CME, WORKSHOP & CONFERENCE LIST JAN 2015-JUNE 2016
 

 
 
S.NO DATE                                 TOPIC
1. 20.06.2015 WORKSHOP CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS
2. 30.07.2015
 
31.07.2015
 
01.08.2015
NATIONAL
 
CONFERENCE
AMBI- TN NATIONAL CONFERENCE-
 
QUALITY MANAGEMNT AND AUTOMATION IN CLINICAL
 
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY- ESSENTIALS AND BEYOND

 
4. 26.05.2016 WORKSHOP TRAINING ON LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS
5 4.6.16 CME NEPHELOMETRY & ITS APPLICATION IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS
6 17.6.16  & 18.6.16 WORKSHOP SAFE BLOOD COLLECTION PRACTICES.
7 23.07.2016 GUEST LECTURE HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

 
 
LIST OF ONGOING EVENTS:

 
S.NO DATE                                   TOPIC
1. 20.08.16 GUEST LECTURE DR.I.PERIAYNDAVAR
 
PROF OF DIABETOLOGY
DIABETES MELLITUS OVERVIEW
 
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS:
S.No Author & Co authors Title  of  Article Name  of the  Journal Year &   Month
1 Dr.K.Ramadevi Hypothyroid Goitre Associated with excess Iodine among south Indians. Int.J of Medl Pharm Sci Jan 2014, Vol 4(5) 23-31.
 
    Serum Cystatin C and Microalbumin in the detection of early Nephropathy in Type II Diabetic patients Int J Phama Bio Sci 2015 April:6(2): (B) 1208- 1214.
 
    12 Novel HGD gene mutations identified in 99 Alkaptonuria patients:Focus on “Black Bone disease”  in Italy. European Journal of Human Genetics 
 
 24(1), March 2015
 
    Iodine Excess and Thyroid dysfunction. Journal of International Medical Sciences Academy. April-June2015, Vol 28, No.1, 83-85
 
    Thyromegaly  and  iodine Nutritional  status  in  a Tertiary  care  hospital  in South  Indian. Indian J Endocr Metab.
 
2016 December.
 
    Developmental Delay and Mental Retardation in patients with Inherited metabolic disorders. Int.J of Pharma and Biosciences.  2016 July ; 7(3): (B) 1005 - 1008
 
2 Dr Pramila .K Serum Paraoxonase activity in chronic kidney disease. National Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2014 June.
 
    The  role  of  high sensitivity C-reactive  protein  as  a cardio vascular  risk marker  in  Essential hypertension . Journal  of  Medical Sciences  and Health. 2016 August.
 
    Analytical sensitivity of TSH assays by ELISA and ELFA. National journal of basic medical science. Volume 6.Issue 4. 2016.
 
3 Dr.S.Sumathy
 
Hyperprolactinemia in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Journal of basic medical science. September 2106.
    Role of plasma fibrinogen as a biomarker in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. July 2016.
 
    Thyroid profile in patients with breast carcinoma. International journal for Pharma and Bioscience.  
October 2016.

 
    Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene Promoter Polymorphism and the Associated Phenotype Variation with Myocardial Infarction. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 
 
 
July 2016.

 
4 Dr. V. Ananthan
 
Association of CYP17 Gene Polymorphism with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS). Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., 2016; 4(7E):2630-2635.
    Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene Promoter Polymorphism and the Associated Phenotype Variation with Myocardial Infarction. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS). Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., 2016; 4(7B):2417-2422.
5 Dr.C.Mythili
 
Diagnostic value of ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin in extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 2015 March.
 
    Role of micronutrient zinc pulmonary tuberculosis. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 2016 May.
 
6 Dr.V.G.Karpaghavalli
 
Thyroid profile in patients with breast carcinoma. International journal for Pharma and Bioscience. October 2016.
 
    Hyperprolactinemia in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Journal of basic medical science. September 2106.
 
    Role of plasma fibrinogen as a biomarker in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. July 2016.
 
7 Dr.S.Siva
 
Preparation of Chitosan/Seaweed-ZnO nanorods for better Antibacterial activity. IJCTA, 9(9), 2016, pp. 4003-4008. IJCTA, 9(9), 2016, pp. 4003-4008.
    A Smart Heart Rate Sensing System in the Internet of Things. IJCTA, 9(9), 2016, pp. 3659-3663.
 
IJCTA, 9(9), 2016, pp. 3659-3663.
 
8 Dr.Menaka Shanthi
 
Angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion deletion polymorphism and its association with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. National journal of basic medical science. National journal of basic medical science.
 
Volume 6.Issue 3. 2016.
    Analytical sensitivity of TSH assays by ELISA and ELFA. National journal of basic medical science. Volume 6.Issue 4. 2016.
 
9 Dr. B. Sudhapresanna Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene Promoter Polymorphism and the Associated Phenotype Variation with Myocardial Infarction. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS). Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., 2016; 4(7B):2417-2422.
    Association of CYP17 Gene Polymorphism with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS). Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., 2016; 4(7E):2630-2635.
 
 
 
Services Offered:
 
 List of Laboratory tests performed
S.No Test Name
1 Glucose
2 Urea
3 Creatinine
4 Bilirubin - Total                                                           
5 Bilirubin – Direct
6 SGOT
7 SGPT
8 Alkaline Phosphatase
9 Total Protein
10 Albumin
11 Sodium
12 Potassium
13 Chloride
14 T. Cholesterol
15 Triglyceride
16 HDL
17 LDL                                                                                                                              
18 Uric acid                                                                                                                          
19 Amylase
20 Lipase
21 Calcium
22 Phosphorus
23 Magnesium 
24 Iron                                                                                                                      
25 CK                                                                                                                             
26 CKMB
27 LDH
28 Lactate
29 Ammonia
30 HbA1C
31 Homocysteine
32 CRP
33 Ceruloplasmin
34 Microprotein
35 Free light chains- Kappa
36 Free light chains- Lambda
Hormones (Immunoassay)
1 fT3
2 fT4
3 TSH
4 Cortisol
5 C- Peptide
6 FSH
7 LH
8 GH
9 Prolactin
10 PTH
11 ACTH
12 DHEAS
13 Testosterone
14 Procalcitonin
15 Thyroglobulin
Cardiac Markers
1 Troponin T hs
Vitamins
1 B12
2 Ferritin
3 Folate
4 Vitamin D (Total)
Tumour Markers
1 AFP
2 CA125
3 CEA
4 Total PSA
5 Free PSA%
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
1 Lithium
2 Valproate
3 Phenytoin
4 Phenobarbitone
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis
1 pH
2 pO2
3 pCO2
4 HCO3 calculated
5 Anion Gap
6 Hct
Other Body Fluid Analysis
CSF:
1 Glucose
2 Protein
3 LDH
Pleural/ Ascitic Fluid:
1 Glucose
2 Protein
3 LDH
4 Amylase
5 Lipase
Stone Analysis
1 Urinary stones
2 Gall stones
3 Others- Pancreatic and salivary
Other Special Tests
1 Serum Protein Electrophoresis
Urine Analysis- Quantitative
1 pH
2 Specific Gravity
3 Protein
4 Protein Creatinine Ratio
5 Sodium
6 Uric Acid
7 Calcium
8 Creatinine Clearance
Urine Analysis- Qualitative
1 BJP
2 Urobilinogen/ Porphobilinogen
3 Vanillyl Mandelic Acid (VMA)
 :

























































































































Total number of tests done: 95

All the following six institutions attached to Madras Medical College & Government General Hospital have separate biochemistry department & service laboratories which caters to the need of their patients which is supervised by qualified personnel.
  • Institute of Child Health & Hospital for Children, Egmore Chennai - 8
  • Institute of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Egmore Chennai – 8
  • Institute of Child Health & Hospital for Children , Egmore Chennai - 8
  • Regional Institute of Ophthalmology & Govt. Ophthalmic Hospital, Egmore. Chennai - 8
  • Institute of Mental Health, Ayyanavaram. Chennai - 23
  • Kasturba Gandhi Hospital for Women & Children, Triplicane. Chennai - 5
  • Average laboratory statistics (average tests conducted / annum)
Laboratory Statistics (average tests conducted / annum):
Laboratory Statistics 2016:  2786142 Tests.
 

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