::Departments : Para Clinical : Pharmacology
 

 
 

 

               The existing department of Pharmacology was originally started as department of Materia Medica and headed by R.Venkatachalam,Lecturer who was also teaching the same subject in Stanley .He was succeeded by Dr.J.C.David who possessed PhD. Degree in Pharmacology from U.K and was the first Professor of Pharmacology in 1931. In 1948 Dr.Iswariah took over Professor of Pharmacology in both MMC and Stanley from Dr.David who was elevated to the position of Surgeon General of the State. Later Dr.K.P.Sarathy specialized in Pharmacology with an M.Sc Degree from Madras University, succeeded Dr.Iswariah who retired in 1955.

          Dr.A.R Govinda Rao  with a Masters degree in Pharmacology from Yale University (USA) held the chair till 1968, during his period the department was shifted to its present location. Dr.M.N Guruswamy with a Masters degree  from Michigan University(USA) took the chair in 1969. From 1972 to 1982 Dr.Lalitha Kameswaran was the Head of Department and was designated as the “First Director of Pharmacology" when the department was Upgraded in 1980. From 1983 Dr.Santa Ramachandran  headed the Institute to be followed by Dr.S.Narasimhan  in  1988 and subsequently  by  Dr.S.Vembar Since 1990. He was followed by Dr.V.Vijayasekaran who was first qualified M.D from Madras University took at the Institute. He was followed by Dr.S.Parvathavardhini and Dr.C.B.Tharani. The Institute is currently headed with Dr.R.Nandini.Director of Pharmacology is a member of Medicinal Chemistry Research Centre (MCRC) functioning under the convenership of Director of Medicine .

PHARMACOVIGILANCE
          Pharmacovigilance is one of the important post-marketing tools in ensuring the safety of pharmaceutical and related health products.Even though India started participating in the WHO Pharmacovigilance programme many years ago and has several professionals who have organized many pharmacovigilance workshops, adverse drug reaction monitoring in India is still in its infancy.
Hence, the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India has launched Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) in 2010 and set targets for five phases from 2010 to 2015 to cover the 335 Medical College Hospitals of the country. Initially the programme started with 11 centres. Madras Medical College, Chennai centre was one of them for monitoring ADR which was in Nov 2010.
This center is able to generate a good volume of adverse drug reactions report. Both known and unknown ADRs are collected from various departments and also from the affiliated institutions.
This centre reported 4521 ADRs from the time of its inception till date. In the last 17 months (from July 2011to November 2012), MMC has occupied the first place for 6 times, reporting 314, 318 , 238, 180, 218, 229 ADRs  and second place for 6 times, reporting 202, 215, 211,182, 167, 213 ADRs.
This achievement is due to the awareness among the clinicians of this institution about the importance of ADR reporting.
 
Clinical Pharmacology
           The Institute as Clinical Pharmacology Unit as one of its wing with the fully qualified and trained the staff from 1975 it is an approved centre by the WHO for its projects on Chemotherapy of Filariasis. In addition, this is also approved by DCGI  for clinical evaluation of existing drugs and for drugs marketed in India the unit already applied for starting a course of D.M Clinical Pharmacology and permission is awaited.

Faculty details:
 
Designation Number
Director & Professor 1
Professor/Associate 3
Assistant Professor 3
Tutor 5
 
 
Academic activities

Courses undertaken
Post graduate courses
M.D Pharmacology
M.D.S
 
Under graduate courses
M.B.B.S
B.D.S
B.Sc Nursing
B.Sc Optometry
B.Sc Cardio Pulmonary Perfusion Technology
B.Sc Dental Hygiene
Type of course :  Medical
 
Name of the courses offered
 
PG – MD (Pharm), M Pharm (Pharm),
UG – MBBS, BDS, B Pharm, BSc Nursing, Dip Nursing
 
( The information shall contain Medical UG, PG, Paramedical UG/PG, Nursing UG/PG and other Paramedical Diploma and Certificate courses and the details to be given for the following highlighted titles for each course)
 
 
o Eligibility- For MD – MBBS, For M Pharm – B Pharm
 
o Course duration – MD – 3 years, M Pharm – 2 years
 
o Sanctioned number of seats- MD – 2+2, M Pharm - 10
 
o Affiliated University ( if applicable) – Dr MGR Medical University
 
o Selection Procedure – through entrance examination conducted by Selection  Committee
 
o University Examination details – conducted at the end of 3 years for MD & at the end of first & second year for M Pharm
 
 
Periodic academic activities held in the department
SEMINARS
Human Gene therapy
Stem cell therapy
Recombinant DNA and its pharmacological applications
Screening of Anti-Parkinsonian drugs
Screening of CNS drugs
Screening of Anti-Diabetic drugs
Screening of Anti-Hypertensive drugs
Screening of Anti-inflammatory drugs
Screening of Anti-ulcer drugs
Screening of Anti-Epileptic drugs
Screening of Anti-Asthmatic drugs
Screening of Anti-Anxiety drugs
Screening of Antibiotics
Screening of Anti-depressants
Preclinical Imaging techniques
Neurodegenerative diseases & Neuroprotective agents
Cholesterol and its physiological role
Free-radicals & antioxidants
Monoclonal antibodies & its therapeutic applications
Neurotransmission & drugs affecting neurotransmission in CNS
Proteomics
Protein and Peptide drugs
Lifestyle drugs
Computer aided drug design
Structure activity relationship
Pharmacotherapy fungal infections
 
CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION (CME)
 
Rational use of drugs in Obstetric practice- Aug 2007
Experimental Pharmacology- June 2008
Recent trends in Psychopharmacological research- July 2008
Deciding first dose in humans- Sep 2008
Basic and Clinical Pharmacokinetics- Aug 2010
Critical Evaluation of Journal Article- Aug 2011
 
Research  Projects of Pharmacology Department
 
Feb 2008
A comparative study of lysine gel 15% with standard therapy in the management of Grade I Diabetic Ulcer
 
March 2008
Inter individual response variation to Anti-hypertensive Metoprolol
A phase I study of DRDO on a new compound
 
March 2009
A study on the Pharmacokinetic alterations of Moxifloxacin with Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol in Healthy volunteers
Efficacy and tolerability of Atorvastatin as an add on therapy in the treatment of Chronic Stable ( Moderately severe ) Asthma
A comparative trial on the efficacy and safety of Vitamin D and Calcium as an add on therapy to Oral Hypoglycemic agents in type 2 DM patients without adequate glycemic control
Biotin as an add on therapy to the standard Oral Hypoglycemic agents in the reduction of blood glucose and lipid levels in patients with type 2 DM
Role of iv Aminoacids in the management of Grade I/II Hepatic encephalopathy
Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-diabetic activities of Decalepishamiltoni root in mice and rats
A NO perspective Antihypertensive study in Nebivolol treated stage I Hypertensive patients
 
 
NAME OF THE STUDY YEAR COMPLETED
Evaluation of analgesic and anti inflammatory and anti pyretic activities of the ethanolic extract of pittasurakudineer, a poly herbal formulation in mice and rats. 2010
Evaluation of anti ulcer and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of zaleyadecandralinn 2010
Evaluation of ethanolic extract of poly herbal formulation ashtachoornam for analgesic and anti ulcer activities in mice and rats. 2010
Evaluation of ethanolic extract of  poly herbal formulation nathaichurichoornam for hypolipidemic activity and a safety profile in rats 2010
Evaluation of anti fertility activity of ethanolic extract of poly herbal formulation on female albino wistar rats 2010
A study on the efficacy and tolerability of petoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis 2010
A comparative trial on the efficacy and tolerability vitamin c as an add on therapy to oral hypoglycemic agent in reducing blood glucose in newly diagnosis type 2 DM 2010
Evaluation of analgesic and anti inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of seenthilchoornam 2010
A study on the role of varying doses of vitamin D in stage 1 hypertension 2010
Evaluation of immunomodulatory and analgesic activities of a poly herbal formulation    (RA-1) using wistar albino rats. 2011
Evaluation of anti diabeticabdhepato protective activities of zignidd a poly herbal formulation in rats. 2011
Evaluation of anti diabetic activity and hepato protective activity of D5 a poly herbal formulation in rats. 2011
Evaluation of immunomodulatory and anti microbial activities of bramananthabairavammathirai 2011
Hepato protective activity of saanthachandirodayam ( SCD ) mathirai 2011
 
An oral bioequivalence study of Tretinoin 10mg capsules of test and reference products in healthy human adults in fasting and fed condition 2011
A randomized open label, balanced two treatment, two period, two sequence single dose two way cross over oral bio equivalence study of Metformin hydrochloride comparing one tablet of 1000mg and two tablets of 500mg of extended release tablets under fasting condition in 24+2 healthy volunteers 2011
A study on behavioural and anti oxidant effect of Hippophaesalicifolia in aluminium chloride treated rat 2011
A randomized open label balanced two treatment, two period, two sequence single dose two way cross over oral bio equivalence study of progesterone tablet 100mg tablet and Progesterone 100mg soft gelatin capsule in 24+2 postmenopausal women under fasting condition 2011
A study on the biochemical changes and motor activity  of Hippophaesalicifolia of aluminium chloride treated Wistar albino rats. 2011
A comparative study of 15% lysine cream in chronic diabetic ulcer grade 2 2011         
  2011
Effect of Isoniazid on the steady state pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin – a study in healthy volunteer 2011
A randomized, comparative open study of lysine cream 15% in second degree superficial burns 2012
A comparative study of telmisartan with enalapril on the serum adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with stage 1 essential hypertension 2012
 
Research projects
A comparative study of 15% lysine cream in chronic diabetic ulcer grade 2 2011
A randomized open label,comparative study of oral branched chain aminoacid in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy 2011
A randomized open label,comparative study of synbiotics in ulcerative colitis 2011
Effect of Rifampin on the steady state pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin - a study in healthy volunteers 2012
Effect of Isoniazid  on the steady state pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin- a study in healthy volunteers 2012
A randomized, comparative open study of 15% lysine cream in second degree superficial burns 2012
A comparative study of Telmisartan with enalapril on the serum adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with stage 1 essential hypertension 2012
An open label randomized, comparative study of 15% lysine cream with standard therapy in the management of decubitus ulcer 2013
A prospective study of cutaneous adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital 2013
An open label randomized study of L –ornithine L-aspartate in patients with grade II/III hepatic encephalopathy 2013
A randomized, open label comparative study of symbiotic with Mebeverine in patients with irritable bowel syndrome 2013
An open label clinical study on efficacy of topical Amlexanox therapy in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcer 2014
A randomized open label comparative study on the effect of Polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with Simethicone in bowel preparation for colonoscopy 2014
A randomized open label comparative study of symbiotic as an add on therapy to standard treatment with standard treatment alone in the management of patients with eczema 2014
A randomized open label comparative study of Vitamin C and Vitamin E as an add on therapy in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection 2014
The efficacy of alfa tocopherol and ascorbic acid in reducing the insulin resistance of early type 2 diabetes mellitus patient-  a randomized open label comparative study 2015
A randomized open label comparative study efficacy of atorvastatin alone and atorvastatin with lycopene combination in atients with hyperlipidaemia attending tertiary care hospital 2015
A randomized open label comparative study of multi strained symbiotic agent with single strained probiotic in acute diarrhoea in children 2015
The evaluation of safety and efficacy of collagen peptide as an add on therapy to standard treatment in comparison with the standard treatment alone in the management of patient with knee joint osteoarthritis 2015
Morphological changes in red blood cells as a marker of oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis and antioxidants as add on therapy to standard treatment in reversal of the changes – a randomized open label,comparative pilot study 2016
Red blood cell morphology as a marker of oxidative stress in early type II diabetes patient and efficacy of antioxidants  as add on therapy to standard treatment – a randomized open label,comparative pilot study 2016
A comparative study of synbiotic   as add on therapy to standard treatment in patient with aggressive periodontitis 2016
A  randomized open label,comparative study of hydroxychloroquine with betamethaasone oral minipulse in patients with alopecia areata 2016
Role of antioxidants like vit C& E in the healing of diabetic foot ulcer as add on therapy and looking for morphological changes in red blood cells as a marker  of oxidative stress - a randomized open label,comparative pilot study 2017
A prospective  randomized open label,comparative study of policosanol as an add therapy to atorvastatin in patients with hyperlipidaemia 2017
A comparative study L Glutamine & Azulene combination as an add therapy to standard treatment in H.pylori infected gastritis & peptic ulcer disease 2017
Morphological changes in red blood cells as a marker of oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and antioxidants as add on therapy to standard treatment in reversal of the changes – a randomized open label,comparative pilot study 2017
Effect of antioxidants like alpha tocopherol and ascorbic acid in reducing the progression of vascular dementia and ascertain morphological changes in the red blood cells as a marker of oxidative stress - a randomised, open label, comparative pilot study Ongoing
 
Effect of antioxidants like alpha tocopherol and ascorbic acid in arresting the progression of diabetic retinopathy and ascertain morphological changes in the red blood cells as a marker of oxidative stress - a randomised, open label, comparative pilot study Ongoing
 
Efficacy of sitagliptin in retarding the progression of albuminuria and assessing its safety and efficacy in patients with diabetic nephropathy Ongoing
 
Effect of d-chiro inositol in polycystic ovary syndrome – a prospective, randomised, open label, comparative study Ongoing
 

 
Title Principal Investigator\
A open label randomised comparative study of lysine cream 15% with standard therapy in the management of Decubitus ulcer
 
In vitro evaluation  of anti inflammatory activity of vitamin E by membrane stabilization test
 
 
A prospective study of cutaneous adverse drug  reaction in a tertiary care hospital
 
A randomized open label, comparative study of L- Ornithine, L- Asparate + symbiotic in patients with Grade II/II hepatic encephalopathy
 
 
A randomized open label, comparative study of  symbiotic with Mebeverine in patients with Irritable bowel syndrome
 
A randomized open label comparative clinical study in vitamin C and vitamin E as ADD on therapy to standard treatment in the management of symptomatic Helicobacter pylori infection
 
A Randomized open label comparative clinical study of symbiotic as an add on therapy to standard treatment with standard treatment alone in the management of patients with eczema
 
A randomized open label comparative study on the effect of polyethyleneglycol alone and in combination with simenthicone in bowel preparation for colonoscopy
 
  A open label clinical study on efficacy of  topical Amlexanox therapy in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcer
 
 
 
  Therapeutic effect of topical Alovera gel  in the  Managment of Hemorrhoids
 
Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalencestudy of Resveratrol and tarns Resveratol by invivo and invitro Methods
 
   Anti Diabetic activity of Blepharis     
maderaspatensis ( L) Heyne ex Roth Leaf extract in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
 13       Evaluation of Anti Cancer Effect of Leavesof Albizia Amar     Boivin using Human cancerous stem cell lines by invitro methods
 
14.Evaluation of anti cancer activity of  various extracts of leaves of cadaba    fruticosa in human cancerous cell lines  using invitro methodology   
 
15.  Pharmacogentic analysis of KIF6TRP719ARG  Polymorphism in South Indian Coronary artery Disease patient
Dr.A.Jayachandran  MD PG
 
Dr. A.Jayachandran MD PG
 
 

Dr.B.Keerthika MD PG
 
Dr.N.Preetha MD PG
 
 
Dr.M.Dhanasekaran MD PG
 
Dr.S.Narendrababu MD PG
 
Dr.T. Meenakshi MD PG
 
 
Dr.C. Vinoth Kumar MD PG
 
Dr.Venkateswaran MD PG
 
R. Selvakumar  M.Pharm PG
 
J.Sanofer M.Pharm PG
 
T. Beneta M.Pharm PG
 
P.Gopinath M.Pharm PG
 
 
D.Sundaravadivelu M.Pharm PG
 
 
 
S. Ramesh M.Pharm PG
 
ONGOING :
 
A Phase I study of injectable thrombinase in healthy volunteers- closed down
Immunological studiesin Filariasis- ICMR WHO- completed
Effect of Albendazole dose on Wuchereria Bancrofti clearance in India, open label study- completed
A randomized open label study of oral branched chain aminoacids in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy- completed
A randomized double blind placebo controlled study of symbiotic as an add on therapy in ulcerative colitis- completed
Publications
 
 
PUBLICATIONS
 
 
 
 
 
1.Studies on the antibacterial and anti fungal activities of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa cylindrical fruit
 
2.Antimicrobial acitivity of whole plant of Luffa cylindrical ( Linn) against some common pathogenic Micro-organism
 
 
.
3.Antimicrobial efficacy of methonolic extract of whole palnt of Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn
 
 
4.Studies  on the immuno stimulant properties of Asparagus racemosus
 
 
 
5.Evaluation of wound healing and  anti inflammatory activity of whole plant of luffa cylindrica ( Linn)in rats
 
Tmt. G. Sashikala Devi Research Assistant, International,Journal of drug development
 
Tmt. R. Indumathy, Tutor in Pharmacy,
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research
 
 
Tmt. Sakthi Abirami, Tutor in Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research
 
Tmt.Sakthi Abirami, Tutor in Pharmacy
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and clinical sciences
 
 
Tmt. Sakthi abirami, Tutor in Pharmacy,
Pharmacology online
 
EXTRAMURAL GRANTS
 
 
Nil
 
 
 
 
 
SPECIAL RESEARCH ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A Proposed Pharmacovigilance model for Tamil Nadu- Best Poster Presentation
 
A randomized open label, comparative study of L- Ornithine, L- Asparate + symbiotic in patients with Grade II/II hepatic encephalopathy-
Best oral presentation in SRIPS conference
 
 
Dr. Nandini ,  Director and Professor,International conference in    Pharmacovigilance, Delhi
 
Dr. Preetha, MD PG
 
 
Research and Publications ( National and International - for the past 5 years / year wise)

e- JOURNALS
Knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacogenetics among PG doctors 2012
Insitu evaluation of anti inflammatory activity of vitamin C 2012
Prescribing pattern of hypertension in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu 2012
A study of antibiotics accepting pattern of uropathogens isolated from urine culture in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu  2012
Antibiotic prescribing pattern in paediatric ward in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu 2013
Prescribing pattern of antidiabetics in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu 2013
Pharmacoeconomics and adverse drug reaction pattern of psychotropic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu 2013
Adverse drug reaction pattern of anti psychotic drugs prescribed in psychiatry out-patient department in a tertiary care hospital 2014
Adverse drug reaction pattern of anti-asthmatic drugs prescribed in asthma out-patient department in a tertiary care hospital 2014
Adverse drug reaction monitoring of metformin in a tertiary care hospital 2014
Case study of dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome 2014
Adverse drug reaction pattern of anti depressant drugs prescribed in psychiatry out-patient department in a tertiary care hospital 2015
Adverse drug reaction monitoring of atorvastatin in a tertiary care hospital 2015
Adverse drug reaction monitoring of anticancer drugs in lymphoma patients in a tertiary care hospital 2015
Knowledge, attitude and practices towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting among healthcare professionals at a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India 2016
A comparative study of blood glucose levels among patients taking typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics 2016
Adverse drug reaction monitoring of fluconazole in a tertiary care hospital 2016
Estimation of haemoglobin level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin in a tertiary care hospital 2016
Knowledge, attitude and practices towards haemovigilance and transfusion reaction reporting among healthcare professionals at a tertiary care hospital in south India- A cross sectional study 2017
Study of Piperacillin- Tazobactam utilization patter and monitoring its adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital 2017
A cross sectional comparative study on self medication practices and attitude of second year undergraduate students and interns in a teaching hospital 2017
A study of prescribing pattern and adverse drug reactions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a tertiary care hospital 2017
 
 
List of publications
s. no Author&Co authors Title of article Name of journal Year&month
  Dr.Vasanthi The effect of alfa- tocopherol and ascorbic acid in reducing the insulin resistance of early type 2 diabetes mellitus patient an open label randomized controlled study. International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences 2015 july
  Dr.Vasanthi Randomised open label comparative clinical study of Vitamin C and Vitamin E as an add on therapy in the management of Helicobacter Pylori infection International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences 2014 December
  Dr.Vasanthi Assessment of frequency of  hypoglycemia due to Metformin therapy  in patients with  Type2 DM,PCOD- A prospective observational study International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences 2014 August
  Dr.Vasanthi Invitro evaluations of antiinflammatory activity of Vitamin E by membrane stabilization test International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences 2013 November
  Dr.Vasanthi Therapeutic effect of Vitamin E in patients with Dyslipidemia International journal of recent advances in pharmaceutical research 2012 october
  Dr.Vasanthi Therapeutic effect of Vitamin E  and Vitamin C in patients with primary osteoarthritis International journal of recent advances in pharmaceutical research 2012 october
  Dr.Vasanthi Therapeutic effect of Vitamin E in patients with primary osteoarthritis International journal of recent advances in pharmaceutical research 2012 january
  Dr. Sudha Spontaneous ADR reporting in tertiary care hospital Pharmanest 2016 june
  Dr. Sudha Effects of probiotics in acute diarrhoea Indian journal of clinical pharmacology 2016 april
  Dr. Sudha Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of cow urine in diabetic rats International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences 2015 May
  Dr. Sudha Evaluation  of hypouricaemic and uricosuric activity of Abutilon indicum sweet on pot oxanate induced hyperuricaemia in rats International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences 2014 April
  Dr.S.Deepa A study on evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of Pharmacology in second MBBS students International journal of Contemplatory Medical Research June 2016
  Dr.S.Deepa A study on the efficacy and tolerability of pentoxiphylline in alcoholic heppatitis International Journal of Institutional pharmacy and Life sciences Sept 2015
  Dr.S.Deepa Assessment of performance of medical students in different systems of pharmacology International journal of pharmaceutical and biological science achieve July 2015
  Dr.G.Chenthamarai
 
Oral branched chain amino acids in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy International Journal of Institutional pharmacy and Life sciences September 2015
  Dr.S.Ramesh Kannan Effect of gabapentin and pregabalin in rat model of Taxol induced neuropathic pain Journal of clinical and diagnostic research May 2015
  Dr.S.Ramesh Kannan Pattern of pathogens and their sensitivity isolated from pus clture reports in tertiary care hospital , Puducherry Indian journal of basic and applied medical research December 2014
  Dr.S.Ramesh Kannan Pattern of pathogens and their sensitivity isolated from urine clture reports in tertiary care hospital , Puducherry Indian journal of basic and applied medical research December 2014
  Dr.S.Suganeshwari
 
A prospective, randomized, open label, comparative study of atorvastatin alone and atorvastatin with lycopene in patients with hyperlipidaemia International journal of institutional pharmacy and life sciences September 2015
  Dr.R. Vishnupriya Metformin in the prevention of metabolic syndrome associated with initiation of atypical antipsychotic therapy in adolescents and young adults – a randomized, open labeled, single centered study International journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences February 2016

Prizes and Award constituted by the Department

Prizes and Awards won
 
Workshops / conferences conducted by the department ( past 5 years / year wise)
 Workshop on Pharmacovigilance - July 2011
 Workshop in Basic Program in Good Clinical Practice - July 2012
 Workshop on Pharmacovigilance – Oct 2012
 

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